Energy Exchange in early Spring over Sea Ice in the Pacific Sector
of the Southern Ocean

Adrian Hauser1, Gerd Wendler2, Ute Adolphs2, Martin O. Jeffries2

1) Institut fur Meteorologie und Klimaforschung, Universitat Karlsrube, Germany
(2)Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks Alaska 99775


In September - October 1994, during a cruise to Antarctica, we carried out measurements of the radiation balance and turbulent fluxes aboard the R.V. Nathaniel B. Palmer. Hourly and daily flux values were calculated. The net radiation and the eddy fluxes showed the expected diurnal variations. On average, the ocean warmed the atmosphere 30.7 Wm-2, a reasonable value for spring. This flux, which was obtained as the remainder of the heat budget equation, showed larger values at night than during daytime.The surface albedo was also investigated. The area-averaged albedo increased from 0.08 for open water to 0.59 for 10/10 ice concentration. There was a large amount of scatter for the albedo when the ship was within the ice pack; low albedo values were associated with young non-snow covered ice and ice with wet snow cover. The UV-B radiation showed the expected increase with decreasing ozone concentration.

Financial support was obtained in part from a grant to the Alaska Climate Research Center by the State of Alaska and from NSF, OPP, Grant 94-13879, 91-17721, and 93-16767.
1999, Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol 104(D4), 3925-3935